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Due to this fact, Brazil has become the largest chestnut importer from Portugal. O Agronômico, Campinas, v. Boletim de Agricultura, v. According to Krebs et al 11 , the most likely original natural distribution range of the chestnut was limited to six macroregions with favourable ecoclimatic conditions which allowed the trees to survive the main glacial events. One of these macroregions is located in Southern Greece and a second one spreads over Macedonia and Southwestern Bulgaria.

Recent research based on pollen analysis reveals the existence of chestnut forests in Bulgaria as early as B. At present, there are several regions with more or less well maintained chestnut stands in Bulgaria, however some of them are in bad condition. Better-preserved chestnut woods are found in the Southwestern part of the country.

During the Tertiary, chestnut trees were widely spread in Bulgaria, reaching up to the North of the country. The origin of the chestnut groves in the Western Balkan range above the town of Berkovitza is still not clear. It is believed that the groves are part of former relict forests.

Other authors suggest that the chestnut was introduced from Southern areas 21 of the country, but this remains unproved. At present, it 22 Fig. Area di diffusione di C. Up to , the chestnut dentale. Recenti studi palinologici fanno presumere che foreste di castagno esistevano in Bulgaria tra e a. Fino al il castagno era considerata una specie protetta e non era possibile eseguire alcun intervento colturale nei boschi.

Specie e aree di diffusione La diffusione del castagno C. Si tratta di aree di limitata estensione e non ben mantenute. Boschi di castagno si incontrano in diverse località del paese Fig.

Species and distribution Only one species of chestnut, C. The total area of chestnut forests in Bulgaria is currently 3. The problem however is not only the limited area, but is mainly arising from the bad condition the chestnut forests are in and the consequent threat of losing the species.

Castanea sativa has only a restricted natural distribution in Bulgaria, forming unique ecosystems. Chestnut stands are present in several places in the country, with relatively large areas of natural chestnuts forests located in Southwest Bulgaria and in the Western Balcans, as well as in the Northwestern part of the country Fig. Usually, the species occurs in pure and mixed communities at the boundary of the beech and oak belt forests.

The trees grow at altitudes between and m asl, depending on the climatic conditions. Between and , some experiments on the introduction of Castanea crenata Sieb. Economical and technical data Chestnut stands can mainly be found in Southern Bulgaria and in the Western Balkan mountain chain. Average tree age is 95 years, with individual trees aging up to years which have developed a trunk diameter of 1,5 m and reaching a height up to 18 m Fig. Vecchio esemplare nella Bulgaria sud-occidentale cording to the latest data , the area occupied Fig.

Old chestnut specimen in Southwest Bulgaria by chestnut trees in the region is 2. Tra il e il sono state introdotte C. Large parts of the stands are over-aged and trees are conTab.

Area e volume di castagni nella foresta di proprietà del Consiglio regionale forestale di Blagoevgrad, nel sud-est della Bulgaria sequently in a bad condition, for example concernTab. Area and volume of chestnut forests on the territory of Regional ing their sanitary status, smaller trunk size Forest Board - Blagoevgrad, Southwest Bulgaria Data increment and low wood quality.

This development 29 can also be seen from the ratio of pure to mixed chestnut forests, which at present is 1: The average age of the chestnut forests Table 2 is directly linked to the different activities of forest management, especially concerning thinning and the management of the shrubby stratum growing under the trees. Data on the dynamics of the areas and the volume of the chestnut stands during the last years are presented in Table 3. The second important chestnut area exists in the Western Balkan mountain chain where warm summers and cold winters are prevailing, and precipitation ranges from to mm on the lower parts and mm on the higher parts.

This chestnut region belongs to the European deciduous forest region, located in the Iliric Balkan province, West Balkan district, and is characterized by predominating beech forests interpersed with some smaller hornbeam and oak forests.

In this region, the sweet chestnut is distributed in the South of the town of Berkovitza and around the Berkovitza m o u n t a i n s Tab. Dinamica superfici e accrescimento Fig.

The del castagno nel sud-ovest della Bulgaria lowest altitude Tab. Dynamics of area and volume of chestnut in South-west of Bulgaria of chestnut Anno-Year Area Ha Volume m3 distribution in 2 Bulgaria is 3 2 m and the 2 highest one is 2 m In questa regione si incontrano popolazioni di castagno allo stato puro e miste.

La maggior parte degli alberi sono vecchi e in cattive condizioni sanitarie e spesso inopportunamente sostituiti con carpino, nocciolo e altri arbusti. Superfici e dati biometrici sono riportati nelle tabelle 1,2,3. Qui le estati sono calde e gli inverni freddi, con precipitazioni annue comprese tra a mm nelle zone più basse, e di — mm in quelle di più elevata altitudine.

Il castagno si trova nella provincia di Iliric e nel distretto Orientale Balcanico qui predominano foreste di faggio, con piccole presenze di carpino e querce ; più a sud si trova vicino alla città di Berkovitza, presso i monti omonimi Fig. Lo scopo principale di questa gestione era e rimane la produzione di legno e frutta, due risorse molto importanti per la gente locale. Un concetto questo recentemente dibattuto 5 ma non ancora completamente compreso.

The main objective of this management was and still remains wood and fruit production; especially for local people both resources are still important. Also the conservation of this species as well as of the functional integrity of the unique chestnut ecosystems is gaining increasing importance. This requires management techniques which aim at the safeguard of the sustainability of these ecosystems by taking into consideration ecological, social and economical goals.

The notion of this ecosystem approach and adaptive management is only being discussed since recently 5 and so far, it is not well understood by forest managers. For modern management of the sweet chestnut forests, it is critical to know the objectives which need to be achieved.

Foresta di castagno nella regione di Berkovitza Fig. Chestnuts forest in Berkovitza region References 1. The vegetation of Bulgaria, Map 1: Processes of degradation in ecosystems of Castanea sativa Mill. Ecological and phytocenological analysis of chestnut coppices in Bulgaria. Multifuntional and sustainable forest management in Bulgaria, Sofia. Ecological characteristics, Distribution and Management of Castanea sativa Mill.

Distribution of Castanea sativa Mill. Ecosystems in Bulgaria, In: Proceeding of Ist Balkan Reg. Project Bulgaria, Sofia Pradella, Quaternary refugia of the sweet chestnut: Chestnut communities state in Berkovska Stara Planina, Forestry ideas, vol.

Phytocoenologycal investigation of chestnut Castanea sativa Mill. Doceva, Ergebnisse archaobotanscher Untersuchungen aus dem Neolithicum Chalcolithikum in Sudwestbulgarien, Arcaeologia Bulgarica, 6, Ecological characteristic of chestnut forests in South West of Bulgaria and management measures.

Floristic materials from Mt Belasitsa, Ann. Distribution of chestnut in Bulgaria and his protection, Proceeding of Jub. University of Forestry, vol I, p. However, palynological and paleoethnological studies conducted on the base of pollen and macro remains on the archeological sites at Prague 13 confirm the distribution of chestnuts in these locations during the Early Modern Age 17th — 18th century.

More historical information about this chestnut orchard is given in a historical text written by Jan Josef Urtici around and in lectures given by Dr. Zippe in 8. At that time, the plants were already fertile, so it can be certainly assumed that the first trees were planted in the 16th century, i.

The best-known present chestnut orchard is Fig. Distribuzione di alberi sopra 20 anni di C. This orchard was established Cryphonectria parasitica in the Czech Republic. In e in una relazione del Dr. Zippe del 8.

Sweet pertanto si stima che siano stati piantati nel XVI seChestnut had spread from the fruits of the Auersperg colo, o anni or sono Attualmente il più chestnut orchard into the surrounding area as well noto castagneto, si trova a Nasavrky nella Boemia as into the cities and villages. The former Auersperg orientale, e faceva parte della tenuta del principe chestnut orchard was declared a Natural Monument Adam Auersperg, il quale, tra il e il , sein I frutti di queste piantagioni, sono stati poi utilizzati per diffondere il castagno dolce nelle aree circostanti e nei villaggi.

Effettivamente negli anni recenti, sono stati piantati alcuni alberi isolati 4. Specie e aree di diffusione Sulla base delle informazioni storiche, divulgative e scientifiche, il castagno europeo Castanea sativa Mill.

Le indagini condotte dal al , hanno potuto confermare la sua presenza in località 4,6,7. In dettaglio, sono stati monitorati alberi tra cui esemplari solitari e altri presenti in piccole macchie boschive. Gli alberi solitari, si trovano nei parchi, nelle scuole materne, nelle città e nei giardini. Alcuni individui di C. La maggiore altitudine, creasing attention has been paid to Sweet Chestnuts in an effort to find an equivalent fruit-bearing woody species as a substitute to Horse Chestnut, which is chronically damaged by the Horse Chestnut Leafminer Cameraria ohridella.

Lately, also many solitary chestnut trees have been planted, as well as along alleys 4. New chestnut stands and orchards have also been established through the Forest Training Enterprise of Mendel University near Brno, as there is a lot of interest in this woody plant not only for nut production, but also for forestry and to test the potential of this woody plant under the conditions of beech-oak stands.

Species and distribution European Sweet Chestnut, Castanea sativa, has been reported on localities throughout the Czech Republic, according to the information in papers and historical sources.

During a survey performed between and , its distribution was confirmed on sites 4,6,7. More than individual trees were examined, and together with the trees present in the forest stands, about trees were assessed.

Chestnut trees were found as individuals or in small groups mainly in parks, forest nurseries, towns, and gardens. The total area of chestnut stands in the Czech Republic covers about 30 ha, and the area of the two most important chestnut orchards is about 3 ha.

The chestnut orchard near Chomutov in Northern Bohemia reaches approximately 2 ha, the circumference at chest height of the most robust tree is cm. The diameter at chest height of the most robust tree in the chestnut orchard in Nasavrky near Chrudim is cm. At higher altitudes, the species suffers from climatic extremes, particularly late frosts. Nevertheless, these local chestnuts are fertile, in contrast to those growing in some stands at lower elevations and in places where only one tree is planted.

The highest position in which chestnuts are growing is located near Nejdek in Karlovy Vary region, where chestnut trees thrive at an altitude m. The most robust trunks with a circumference of 33 dove si possono trovare dei castagni, è Nejdek in prossimità della regione di Karlovy Vari, a m.

Oggi, la legge protegge i vecchi esemplari di castagno, che sono stati dichiarati Monumenti Naturali. Soltanto in poche località, sono stati osservati alberi deperiti, incluso quella di Nasavrky, dove esiste la più grande piantagione di castagno.

La malattia da quarantena, Cryphonectria parasitica, che provoca il cancro della corteccia è stata osservata per la prima volta nel 10, Fino al , la contaminazione da cancro corticale è stata confermata in sei località, di cui quattro vicino a Brno incluso alcuni casi osservati in due vivai.

Con la quercia, il castagno condivide le micorrize e la vasta gamma fungina che attacca il legno. Sul tronco degli alberi crescono anche, Phellinus robustus. Invece, marciumi radicali vengono causati da Ustulina deusta, Armillaria gallica, A.

Frequente è anche la comparsa di Nectria spp. At present, many old individual chestnut trees are protected by law as Natural Monuments. From a genetic point of view, the Czech population of Sweet Chestnut is an explicit example of genetic drift. Based on the analysis of randomly chosen genotypes, genetic linkage within populations was 0,05—0.

According to written sources, the majority of seedlings was introduced from Northern Italy. Economical and technical data Compared to other tree species, the health condition of Sweet Chestnut could be defined as good; however, a decline of chestnut trees was observed on some localities. A significant decline was also reported for the large chestnut stand in Nasavrky. The main cause is probably of abiotic nature, associated with the secondary activation of some fungal pathogens.

Furthermore, chestnut trees seem to be very sensitive to soil salinity, thus they are not suitable as alley trees along busy roads; serious decline was observed on chestnut standing along the roads in several places. The quarantine disease Chestnut Blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica was first identified in the Czech Republic in 10, Up to , Chestnut Blight was confirmed for six localities in the Czech Republic, resp.

Two of these occurrences were located in nurseries or in windbreaks. Concerning wood-destroying fungi, the following species occur abundantly on dead twigs: Root rots caused by Ustulina deusta, Armillaria gallica, A.

The appearance of Nectria spp. The spectrum of wood-destroying and also mycorrhizal fungi on Sweet Chestnut is similar to that on Oak. One of the serious phytosanitary hazards is the ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp.

This infection causes a gradual drying of the tissues which leads to the total decline of the affected trees. The main favouring factor of this disease seems to be in climatic extremes.

Le castagne arrostite vendute principalmente nei mercatini di Natale, secondo una tradizione che nella Repubblica ceca persiste fin dal XIX secolo. Recentemente nei mercati sono comparsi anche dei prodotti derivati dalla lavorazione delle castagne, soprattutto frutti essiccati, prodotti per uso farmaceutico, cosmetico ed altro. Un certo interesse per il castagno esiste come albero ornamentale, mentre nella forestazione, si preferisce piantarlo in associazione ad altre specie.

Sebbene non nativo della Repubblica ceca, il castagno europeo, si presta bene ad essere piantato in aree soggette ad estremi climatici insieme a querce e a faggi.

Uses and traditions Even though in the past the first chestnut stands were founded with the intention to produce fruits, at present their production is of minor economic importance. Roasted chestnuts have been a traditional element on Christmas markets in the Czech Republic since the 19th century. Most fruits are imported, mainly from Italy. Products made with chestnut fruit extracts have recently appeared on the Czech market, especially pharmaceuticals, dried goods, cosmetics etc.

The plantation of chestnut trees is limited to solitary trees as ornamental elements. As a stand-forming species, chestnut trees are rather used in mixed forestations. There are only few stands with significant distribution of chestnut in the Czech Republic. Even though the European Sweet Chestnut is not native to the Czech Republic, it is one of the woody species which can be planted in oak, oak— beech and beech forests, due to its tolerance to climatic extremes occurring in some areas.

Distribution and health condition of chestnut Castanea spp. Vegetative compatibility groups of Cryphonectria parasitica Murrill M. Barr in the Czech Republic. Advances in horticultural science, 20 1. Distribution of sweet chestnut C. New finds of Cryphonectria parasitica and the first record of chestnut blight on red oak Quercus rubra L. Journal of Forest Science, 51 6.

New findings and vegetative compatibility group of Cryphonectria parasitica Murrill M. The first record of Cryphonectria parasitica in the Czech Republic. Delle oltre specie arboree scoperte, circa , sono coltivate su larga scala e tra queste vi è il castagno cinese Castanea mollissima Bl.

In Cina, il castagno, si coltiva da almeno anni prima di Cristo ed ha avuto una grande importanza economica, fino alla epoca della Dinastia Han durata tra il a. Specie e aree di diffusione Il castagno, appartiene alla famiglia delle Fagaceae, sottofamiglia Castanea e comprende circa 10 specie sparse in varie parti del mondo. Tre sono native della Cina Figg.

More than tree species have been identified, and about species are being cultivated commercially. Chinese chestnut is among the major cultivated species and it is considered the best quality edible chestnut in the world for its excellent taste and fragrance.

It has furthermore developed a very high resistance to blight, probably more than any other species of chestnut. The history of chestnut cultivation in China dates back to 1, A. D, and already during the Han Dynasty B.

Nowadays, the chestnut industry is a major economic factor in many villages and towns located in producing areas, and it has a vast prospect in the rational land management through the promotion of economical development in hilly and mountainous areas in the country. Species and distribution The chestnut belongs to the Fagaceae family, subfamily Castanea, and about 10 species are known in the world.

There are 3 native species of chestnut Figs. Castagno cinese - C. The two introduced species, guinii Dode. Sono anche coltivate, due specie non Japanese chestnut C. Zucc e il castagno europeo C. Geographical distribution of chestnuts in China nan. Le principali aree di Hunan, Sichuan, produzione del castagno cinese, sono nelle valli del Chongqing, Guizhou,Yunnan, Shanxi, Gansu and fiume giallo e del fiume Yangtze.

Vertical distribution ranges from approximately 30 m asl located on alluvial plains Dati economici e tecnici in Southern Shandong province and Northern La Cina, è attualmente uno tra i più importanti Jiangsu province to 2.

Main producing perficie di ha e una produzione che nel areas of the Chinese chestnut are concentrated at the è stata di tonnellate Tab. Nel sono Yellow River valley and the Yangtze River valley. Nei differenti diChina is Tab. Produzione di castagno stretti sono coltivate currently one of the Tab. Esportazione di castagne - Tab. La castagna sgusciata è leggermente gialla, menwhich is also the largest amount in the world.

Possiede anche un elevato valore economico perchè alimenta un mercato finalizzato allo sfruttamento delle sue proprietà medicinali. La raccolta, si fa in settembre ed in ottobre. Essendo la castagna uno dei frutti più appetibili e di elevato valore nutritivo, è Fig. Preparazione delle caldarroste dai tempi antichi, Fig. Chestnut roasting che le caldarroste si preparano, si vendono e si mangiano in autunno Fig. Con le castagne, si preparano numerosi prodotti semilavorati con frutto fresco congelato ed es- Fig.

Many local cultivars are present in different districts. Average nut weight is 8. The fresh seed is light yellow and after frying the flesh is shiny and golden. Chestnut production has been effectively increased and its excellent quality has been maintained by applying modern management methods and technologies for comprehensive pest and disease controls, orchard management for high-density plantations, soil improvement, dry farming cultivation as well as fertilization according to the year plan Fig.

Uses and traditions The Chinese chestnut is used both for nut production or to provide shade. It is also planted in rows as a windbreak.

It is highly appreciated for its economic and medicinal properties. In China, chestnuts are harvested in September and October. Being one of the major edible crops, the selling of roasted siccato , confezionate in vari modi Fig. I fiori degli amenti di castagno, hanno un odore specifico che è repellente per gli insetti, proprietà questa alla base di una vecchia usanza di intrecciare gli chestnuts in the autumn has a long tradition Fig. Chestnuts are also processed to semi-finished products and finished products, such as dried nuts, freezed fresh nuts or nut cans Fig.

Vari tipi castagne lavorate Fig. Different kinds of processed chestnuts Fig. Trama di amenti intrecciati a forma di tigre Fig. Tiger knitted of chestnut catkins amenti creando forme animali , e di sistemarli in casa per scacciare zanzare, moscerini e altri insetti Fig. Durante le cerimonie nuziali, è costume regalare frutti di giuggiole e castagne, poggiati sulla trapunta del letto della nuova coppia di sposi come simbolo di augurio di fertilità Fig. Quando un mercante, fa passare per buone, merci di cattiva qualità, di lui si dice: During wedding ceremonies, people often put some Chinese dates and chestnuts in the quilt of the newly married couple Fig.

Chinese is a very nice, melodic and rich language. His similar to chestnut tree with tree burs originally. Giuggiole e castagne, per gli auguri agli sposi Fig. Good wishes in a wedding ceremony with date and chestnut Fig. Evolution of Chinese symbols describing chestnut tree 39 Croatia Medak1 J. Gli antichi Romani a significant influence during history. Nei tempi antichi le foremassifs, by which the natural distribuste di castagno erano una ricca tion of sweet chestnut forests was sigfonte di materia prima per le poponificantly extended in Croatia.

In ancient times, sweet Fig. Albero gigante di castagno Dai boschi cedui, dopo un periodo chestnut forests were a rich source of presso la foresta di Medvednica di breve rotazione anni , si otraw material.

Sweet chestnut wood is Fig. A giant chestnut tree in the Medvednica forest teneva materiale idoneo, per fare: Famosi erano gli ombrelli lavorati nel XIX high tannin content. Legno were obtained and used to produce binders, baskets, e carbonella erano il combustibile più usato dai fabsmall pickets, sticks and stocks for farming tools, as bri durante la forgiatura dei metalli.

Le scorie delle castagne, invece, erano usate wine and beer barrels, pillars, laths, mine wood, come lettiera animale e la frutta anche per nutrire il thinner construction wood, narrow boards, tannin bestiame.

Nelle foreste di castagno, si disponevano extraction, etc. Sweet chestnut litter was used for flooring and the fruit In Croazia, il castagno è diffuso in due aree prin- cipali ma dai climi differenti, il che in totale rappresenta oltre i Ha.

I castagneti più grandi e più belli sono nelle foreste di Zrinska Fig. As today, sweet chestnut was also highly esteemed as a honey-yielding and curative species. Species and distribution In Croatia, sweet chestnut is spread in two main distinct areas of different climatic zones, covering a total area of more than The larger area spreads along central Croatia, from the Slovenian to the Bosnian-Herzegovinian border.

Sweet chestnut can be found on all massifs of this region, whereas the biggest and most beautiful forests grow on the Zrinska Fig. Here we can find the sweet chestnut growing together with oak, beech or horn- Foresta nativa di castagno a Zrinska gora Fig. Il castagno europeo, è una specie, che predilige le zone calde, pertanto nel clima continentale croato, cresce bene in zone collinari luminose, rifuggendo da quelle asciutte, fredde e soggette a nebbie.

Sugli altipiani, invece, il castagno cresce nelle montagne non molto ripide, allo stato boschivo o in forma di alberi isolati. Pure sweet chestnut coppices cover about Since this area is dominated by a rather continental climate, the sweet chestnut most readily grows in warm, well-lit positions on hilly territories, avoiding dry, cold and foggy sites. On plateaus, mountain ridges and generally slightly hilly terrains it often forms pure stands, whereas on larger steeps and more open terrains it grows individually or in small groups.

Trees thrive best on deep, acidic and decalcified soils, basically on a siliceous substrate. The second sweet chestnut area in Croatia belongs to the sub-Mediterranean region, including Istria and the islands of Cres and Krk.

Apart from forest stands, it is this part of Croatia where the commercial plantations of sweet chestnut are located. In this region of warmer climate with higher precipitation rates, the trees grow on fresh soils, as well as on deep, leached soils with a carbonate substrate.

They grow well in windprotected positions, whereas in places exposed to wind, Castanea sativa chooses the most protected positions. Le castagne, appena Fig. Albero innestato, a Liganj vicino Opatija. Grafted tree in Liganj near Opatija and its graft-union Fig.

Le foreste di castagno private, sono soprattutto sfruttate per la produzione dei frutti. Nella Croazia continentale, invece, il castagno, si rinviene prevalentemente allo stato di foresta mista o pura. Il legno delle foreste statali, non è di gran qualità sovente è affetto da cretto anulare ed è per lo più esportato nei paesi vicini per la produzione di tannino.

Il legno, inoltre, trova uso in agricoltura, per fare pali di sostegno per la vite, per costruire barili per il vino, in carpenteria, etc. Sweet chestnuts marrons were exported already in the 17th century, and they were, along with olives, wine and cherries, agricultural products based on which the inhabitants of this region were able to sustain themselves for centuries. The export of marrons reached its peak in the 19th century when they were most sought-after in Italy, Austria and Germany.

Afterwards, a period of stagnation set in, which led to the almost complete abandonment of grafted orchards Figs. Sweet chestnut fruits were collected for the food industry, to be processed into purée, flour or to be preserved. During the s, annual amounts of 2. In continental Croatia, sweet chestnut is mostly found in mixed or pure sweet chestnut forests. Privately owned sweet chestnut forests are mostly used for fruit production.

Wood from state owned forests is mainly of poor quality ring-shake and is mostly exported to neighboring Slovenia for tannin production. In carpentry it is used for floors and parquets, wooden constructions, bridges, ferries, shingles for roof frames, roof building material, mine and tunnel wood. It is also used for sleepers, for pillars in shipbuilding, in the wood and timber industry for wall-panels, plywood, particle boards and veneer. These are festivals organized in October, at the ripening time of the nuts; traditionally, a very rich gastronomic offer of various sweet pavimenti e parquet, per i ponti, per i tetti, nelle miniere per sostenere i tunnel.

Trattasi di sagre organizzate in ottobre, al tempo della maturazione delle castagne, quando con il frutto si preparano tante prelibatezze gastronomiche: Durante la sagre non mancano mai visite organizzate nelle foreste. In passato i marroni si usavano come surrogato del caffè, macinando castagne arrosto. Molto particolare è il brandy aromatizzato con miele di castagne. A parte la tradizionale torta di castagne, con i marroni si preparano tante altre cose: I prodotti della pasticceria, tradizionalmente, sono addolciti col miele di castagne usato al posto dello zucchero.

Il castagno in Croazia svolge anche un ruolo paesaggistico e di equilibrio per la biodiversità, ecco perché si usa piantarlo consociato ad altre specie forestali.

Apart from the accompanying cultural programmes, visits to sweet chestnut forests for fruit collection are organized. Sweet chestnuts blossom in June and are therefore a very important source for late alimentation of bees, thus allowing to obtain the specific honey, nectar and pollen.

From the Zrinska gora region where half of the total Croation sweet chestnut area is located , annual production of sweet chestnut honey amounts to about tons Fig. In the past, marrons were roasted and then ground and used as a substitute for coffee. Sweet chestnut honey is the base for honeybrandy.

Pastry and sweets are traditionally sweetened with sweet chestnut honey instead of sugar. Bread is made of sweet chestnut flour. Recently, the fruits have also been utilized, in combination with milk, for animal feeding; the high nutritional value of the nuts guarantees the production of the best meat baby beef. Today, sweet chestnuts are also extremely important in Croatia for landscape purposes and the maintenance of biological diversity, mainly in mixed forests with other species.

Regardless of its decreased economic role, sweet chestnut is not losing popularity, especially thanks to its tasty fruits, and every autumn its forests are certainly the most visited ones. Arnie ubicate in una foresta di castagno Fig. Bee-hives in chestnut forest References 1.

Pitomi kesten na Cresu. Prikaz sastojina pitomog kestena Castanea sativa Mill. Novak Agbaba, S, B. Chestnut research in Croatia. Pitanje autoktonosti i dalji uzgoj pitomog kestena Castanea sativa Mill. Un significativo declino della produzione è avvenuto a partire dal a causa della comparsa della Phytophthora spp.

Oggigiorno vi sono coltivate sia varietà tradizionali che ibridi interspecifici. Le varietà tradizionali, -tutte appartenenti alla specie Castanea sativa -sono: Gli ibridi coltivati sono incroci interspecifici tra C. Essi sono meno suscettibili agli attacchi di Phytophthora spp e Cryphonectria parasitica, maturano precocemente, hanno frutti di buona dimensione e sono ben apprezzate sul mercato. Non a caso si osserva una costante riduzione della coltivazione delle varietà tradizionali in tutte le regioni e, quindi, un parallelo incremento di quelle ibride.

Attualmente si tende a promuovere le varietà precoci, con frutto grosso e meno suscettibili alle malattie. Production significantly declined through the XXth century, which was mainly due to the appearance of new diseases Phytophthora spp. Chestnut trees were also used for tannin production which led to extensive deforestation. Nowadays, French production is concentrated in few departments; however, many secondary producing areas are still dispatched over the rest of the territory.

There are two types of chestnuts grown today, traditional varieties and hybrid varieties. Generally, we notice a steady reduction of traditional varieties in all regions, with new hybrid varieties replacing them. The traditional varieties, belonging to the species Castanea sativa, are well adapted to the areas of production but often poorly suit the needs of modern markets. Many of these are old varieties, and they are generally of good gustative quality, but fruits are often split and trees are sensitive to cankers and ink disease.

The hybrid varieties deriving from interspecific crosses of C. In Francia sono tanti i vecchi castagneti abbandonati, dappertutto, ad eccezione del sud-est del paese dove i coltivatori continuano a mantenere e rinnovare le vecchie piantagioni, producendo castagne da varietà tradizionali. Attraverso iniziative locali, sono state create denominazioni di qualità ed etichette di riconoscimento come: Il rinnovamento degli impianti Figg. In tutti i casi la pianta ricomincia a fruttificare dopo il terzo anno.

Comunque in queste regioni le piantagioni non sono numerose ed i frutti sono destinati al consumo fresco, mentre quelli più piccoli sono destinati alla trasformazione di tipo artigianale.

Se questo tipo di castanicoltura sopravvive lo si deve alla capacità della gente di creare valore aggiunto al prodotto raccolto, come in alcuni posti dove, per eesmpio, sono nati negozi per la vendita diretta ai consumatori locali ed ai turisti.

In Corsica vi sono allevamenti suini alimentati con le castagne, per produrre carne di qualità superiore. Il controllo fitosanitario dei castagneti lascia molto a desiderare a causa delle difficoltà di effettuare trattamenti chimici. Early ripening varieties with a good fruit size are well commercialized on the fresh markets and consequently, harvested quantities are increasing.

Economical and technical data From the In Southwestern areas, the old abandoned chestnut groves are very numerous. In the Southeastern of France, instead, growers prefer to maintain their old chestnut orchards and continue to produce fruits of traditional varieties.

The renovation of these plots Figs. Bearing initiates after three years. Sometimes, renovation is also done by grafting the native shoots on old and cut-down trees.

Damages caused by cankers Cryphonectria parasitica often need careful attention with this method of renovation. There are few new plantations in this region. The most part of the production of this region is destined to the fresh market. Small and low-grade fruits are used in the processing industry.

Some growers have organized workshops to learn to process the fruits on their own and now sell their products directly to local consumers and the many tourists visiting these regions.

This added value of the product and these marketing strategies allow to obtain interesting prices and to continue the production of chestnuts in areas which are not very suitable for intensive agriculture. In Corsica, an important amount of the nuts are used to feed pigs which are intended to produce high quality meat. Corsica is also specialized in the traditional production of chestnut flour.

Technically, the main problems are linked to the susceptibility of C. Nel Sudovest della Francia, il castagneto tradizionale è stato abbandonato. I coltivatori hanno preferito impiantare nuovi frutteti con le varietà ibride Marigoule e Bouche de Bétizac.

Piante autoradicate della varietà Marigoule sono state messe a dimora tra il e il Si sta valutando la possibilità di utilizzare delle specifiche varietà impollinatrici di C.

Impianto di Bouche de Betizac nel sud-ovest della Francia Fig. I principali problemi di questi ibridi sono la sensibilità del tronco al gelo, la non completa affinità di innesto e una certa incompatibilità del polline. The sanitary status of the fruits carpocapse worm, balanin worm, rots is also often mediocre, but the application of chemical plant protection technologies is very difficult in these areas.

The design of new plantations provides for a more rational orchard management irrigation, fertilization as well as easier disease control. This variety produces fruits of big size, attractive appearance and good post harvest shelf live, but only of medium gustative quality. Fruits ripen medium-early, but trees are not very productive and furthermore particularly demanding in pollination.

Specific pollinators deriving from C. The fruits are of big size fruits per kilogram , but not very bright.

Trees are quite resistant to canker, but rather susceptible to fruit rots. A breeding programme for new varieties initiated by INRA National institute for agriculture research during the s should in the near future result in the registration of some new varieties. Main breeding targets adressed with these hybrid varieties are their adaptation to local climate and soil conditions frost on trunks , as well as overcoming problems of grafting and pollen incompatibility.

Usi e tradizioni Attualmente la maggior parte della produzione francese viene venduta fresca nel periodo autunnale, tra ottobre e novembre. Circa tonnellate di castagne vengono lavorate come frutto intero conservato nel proprio succo; con i frutti più piccoli -circa tonnellatesi fanno marmellate. La pasticceria lavora tonnellate di marrons glaces Fig. Uses and traditions Early production, good fruit size and sanitary quality are most important aspects in commercializing chestnuts.

Nowadays the main part of French production is sold on the fresh market in autumn, more specifically in October and November. The processing industry uses about Imported products mainly arrive in the form of picked and frozen chestnuts. The canning industry producing whole chestnuts in their own juice uses about Jam industries absorb 7. Chestnut wood was also used for the production of tannin which led to extensive deforestation.

I Marrons glacès, serviti sulle tavole dei nobili francesi, fin dal Fig. It grew in forests of the Caucasus already ziaria del Pliocene, prima della grande Glaciazione million years ago, at the Pliocene of the Ter 7. Alcuni scienziati ritengono che il castagno Catiary period, before the great glaciations 7. Some scistanea sativa Mill. Questa ipotesi introduced into Europe from the Caucasus region or si basa sul fatto che, la variabilità genetica dei genoTurkey around 2. Attraverso le fonti storiche si comprende che, Turkey and gradually decreases towards the West Il that most forests in Georgia, provided that climatic georgiano Vakhushti Batonishvili grande fito-geoand soil conditions allowed so, were composed of grafo del XVIII secolo, riporta che il castagno crechestnut trees.

Guldenshtedt, viaggiando lungo la several times that the sweet chestnut is native to Georgia, ebbe modo di osservare e di segnalare in Georgia, and that it grows spontaneously all over the un articolo scientifico che la qualità delle castagne country.

He also reported that nuts of chestnut trees migliorava procedendo da oriente zona di Kakheti growing in the Eastern part of Georgia Kakheti are verso occidente area di Sanavardo del paese. Guldenshtedt, during delle associazioni boschive di castagno insieme a his travels in Georgia, described chestnuts growing quelle di susino, cotogno, fichi e gelsi, ossia si osserin small groves near Sanavardo West Georgia, vava la presenza di una vasta gamma di frutti eduli Imereti , together with plums, quinces, figs and mulche crescevano insieme, come mai Guldenshtedt berries, and he noted that he had never seen similar aveva visto prima!

Chestnuts are utilized in two ways: This second utidi castagno, tali da minare lization has frequently alla fonte il patrimonio focaused severe and unrestale georgiano. Foreste di castagno in Georgia aree in rosso schio di estinzione, e Caucasian chestnuts Fig. Chestnut forests in Georgia red spots pertanto è stato incluso nel were highly de- 48 Libro rosso delle specie da proteggere.

Cholokashvili, alla castagna, ha dedicato questa strofa: In Georgia vi sono molti luoghi i cui nomi sono legati al castagno: Specie e aree di diffusione In Georgia cresce il castagno dolce C. Il castagno non si trova in foreste pure, ma in associazioni boschive, insieme alla quercia georgiana, al faggio, al ciliegio e ad altre piante. In his poem about fruits, Georgian writer G.

Species and distribution The sweet chestnut C. It belongs to the genus Castanea Mill. This genus belongs to the family Fagacea, as Oak and Beech. Usually, Castanea trees grow in mixed deciduous forests, together with Georgian oak, beeches, wild cherries and other trees. Foresta di castagno in Racha-Lechkhumi-Georgia occ. Castagne delle foreste di Kakheti - Georgia orientale Fig. Chestnuts in the Kakheti forest Eastern Georgia comprese tra e m e, qualche volta, persino anche a m.

Non cresce, invece, nelle zone orientali della Georgia e nei terreni calcarei. La pianta è in grado di reagire rapidamente ai tagli anche in condizioni di scarsa penetrazione della luce e quindi si adatta bene come specie da bosco ceduo. The chestnut is spread over both the Western and the eastern parts of the country Fig.

They are mainly grown at altitudes between - m asl, in some places even at 1. Large chestnut forests are located in the Samegrelo region at elevations of m , such as Martvili, Zugdidi, Abchasia, Imereti-Kharagauli, Zestaphoni, Tskaltubo, Bagdadi, Tkibuli, Chiatura, and in the region of Guria at altitudes of Toler- 49 50 Notizie economiche e tecniche ating shading quite well, chestnut trees have a good I dati del del Ministero della protezione regeneration ability and after cutting they sprout easambientale riportano in Ha, la superficie foily; therefore, they are widely used for coppicing.

Una stima approsEconomical and technical data simata, ma non ufficiale, indica in mila tonnellate le castagne prodotte in Georgia. Estifino a 1, m. Nella foresta si incontrano alberi che svilupdata do not exist. Nella Georgia Occidentale Samegrelo, eters vary between 0. Svaneti, Abchazia si incontrano alberi con un Trees can live for more than years, in some tronco dal diametro di 1,,8 m. Un buon accresciplaces even years. They do not tolerate drought and heat.

There coltivazione della pianta se a bosco ceduo o se creis information that cold hardiness of local chestnut sce isolata Un albero da bosco ceduo produce types is higher than in European locations, and trees frutta volte meno di un albero solitario.

The ripe pollen of paese i castagneti non sono mai stati coltivati su base male flowers has a specific sweet smell which atcommerciale, perché nelle foreste è possibile trovare tracts insects for pollinisation. Chestnut trees enter grandi quantità di frutti allo stato spontaneo; tuttavia, into bearing at the age of years and are fully proin alcune regioni, principalmente nel distretto di Koductive at the age of years.

Yield amounts debuleti distretto di Ajara vicino alle case, venivano pend closely on the prevailing weather conditions of coltivati castagni per il frutto.

It is conpollinazione delle api. In presenza di pronubi un etsidered that harvest from Chestnut trees growing in taro fornisce kg di frutti, valore che si forests is times less than yields obtained from abbassa a kg in luoghi single trees. The nuts start falling non molto visitati dalle api. A at the end of September, mainly fine settembre i ricci iniziano without the chests.

Average a cadere liberando le castaweight of one fruit is approxigne, che vengono raccolte da mately g. Nella away from honeybees. In Georstagione autunnale si registra Fig. Selezione manuale di castagne per il mercato gia, chestnuts have never been Fig.

Grading of chestnuts by hand for market anche una certa attività comcultivated on a commercial basis; merciale, da parte di acquirenti che le trasportano e le vendono in altre cittadine Dal punto di vista qualitativo, le castagne sono selezionate Fig. Nella foresta di Kakheti è stata osservata la seguente frequenza delle classi di castagne raccolte: Chestnuts are generally harvested by collecting them in big bags from the ground; then, they are brought to drying places, where the local people keep them for drying on cm thick layers.

The nuts are mainly sold on the markets of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. In autumn also many traders arrive from other cities to buy the fruits and transport them on their own to other, distant markets Fruits are graded in 3 categories accoerding to their size Fig. According to this sizing, Chestnuts from Kakheti usually show the following percentages: Georgian chestnuts are quite good in taste and have positive technological characteristics; therefore, some local companies process the nuts according to the Fig.

Chemical composition of chestnuts from Kvareli 2 frozen Fig. The wood is a good mica delle castagne di Kakheti. Le castagne georsource of tannin and had been used for leather tangiane sono molto gustose ed hanno sufficienti ning before the introduction of synthetic tannins.

Le castagne sono il frutto più gia, sometimes also roasted; the latter version is preamato dai georgiani, tanto che nella dialettica popoferred by children.

The nuts are highly esteemed in lare, quando qualcuno chiede qualcosa di molto piaGeorgia, and there are even some Georgian proverbs cevole, ma difficile di ottenere, gli si risponde: Il legname di castagno è molto richiesto, per fare porte di legno e finestre delle case, apprezzate per il colore piacevole ed attraente. Prima che si diffondessero i pali di cemento, i supporti del vigneto erano fatti con pali di castagno. Alcuni produttori di vino usano con successo botti fatte con doghe di legno di castagno.

Nella Georgia occidentale, si costruiscono speciali case fatte con legno di castagno che, anche dopo cento anni, non presentano danni da roditori, da marciumi o da insetti 7. In passato, prima che si diffondesse il tannino sintetico, dalla corteccia di castagno si faceva inchiostro e dal legno di castagno si estraeva il tannino usato per colorare il cuoio. Per quanto riportato nei vecchi libri di erboristeria medicinale, le castagne arrosto erano raccomandate durante la convalescenza degli ammalati; gli estratti fogliari sarebbero stati utili nella cura di gastriti e, per il loro elevato contenuto di tannini, si usavano anche come coadiuvanti nella rimarginazione delle ferite.

In passato dalle foglie si faceva un prodotto medicinale che aveva effetti emostatici The trees are very beautiful during flowering, and in autumn leaves turn brightly yellow. Therefore, chestnuts are used as landscape trees in some villages 2.

Very popular is also the use of chestnut timber; due to its nice colour, good structure, and attractive appearance, wooden doors and windows for houses are made of it. This was also the reason why in Eastern Georgia chestnut wood was used to construct bridges, and in Megrelia they were so widely spread and famous that there is even a saying in Mengrelian dialects which refers to chestnut bridges and its resistance to rotting and insects.

Before the production of cement poles, supports made of chestnut wood had been used in vineyards. There is also information from local winemakers that wine barrels made of chestnut bark is widely appreciated.

In the past, the bark of chestnut trees had also been used to produce ink. According to old medicinal books, roasted chestnuts are supportive elements in the convalescence of people under therapy. Furthermore, a leaf extract is said to cure gastritis. Due to its high content of tannins, chestnut wood was used to heal wounds and injuries. Chestnut leaves are also the basis of a medicine for haemostatic remedies Castagne pelate pronte per essere congelate - Fig. Peeled chestnuts ready for being frozen 52 References 1.

Dendrology, Volume II, Tbilisi, p. Buchukuri V, Nizharadze I. Chestnut About cultivation and planting , Tbilisi, Bioecological peculiarities of Chestnut grove in Kakheti, PhD dissertation thesis, p. Ocherk pastitelnogo pokrova kavkaza s kartoi, Tbilisi, p. Basic Forest growing, Tbilisi, p. Evidence of genetic drift in chestnut populations.

Report of study chestnut distribution in Georgia, internal report of AgVantage, Tbilisi p. Statistic data of forest distribution in Georgia,

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The main objective of this management was and still remains wood and fruit production; especially for local people both resources are still important. Also the conservation of this species as well as of the functional integrity of the unique chestnut ecosystems is gaining increasing importance. This requires management techniques which aim at the safeguard of the sustainability of these ecosystems by taking into consideration ecological, social and economical goals.

The notion of this ecosystem approach and adaptive management is only being discussed since recently 5 and so far, it is not well understood by forest managers. For modern management of the sweet chestnut forests, it is critical to know the objectives which need to be achieved.

Foresta di castagno nella regione di Berkovitza Fig. Chestnuts forest in Berkovitza region References 1. The vegetation of Bulgaria, Map 1: Processes of degradation in ecosystems of Castanea sativa Mill. Ecological and phytocenological analysis of chestnut coppices in Bulgaria. Multifuntional and sustainable forest management in Bulgaria, Sofia. Ecological characteristics, Distribution and Management of Castanea sativa Mill.

Distribution of Castanea sativa Mill. Ecosystems in Bulgaria, In: Proceeding of Ist Balkan Reg. Project Bulgaria, Sofia Pradella, Quaternary refugia of the sweet chestnut: Chestnut communities state in Berkovska Stara Planina, Forestry ideas, vol.

Phytocoenologycal investigation of chestnut Castanea sativa Mill. Doceva, Ergebnisse archaobotanscher Untersuchungen aus dem Neolithicum Chalcolithikum in Sudwestbulgarien, Arcaeologia Bulgarica, 6, Ecological characteristic of chestnut forests in South West of Bulgaria and management measures. Floristic materials from Mt Belasitsa, Ann. Distribution of chestnut in Bulgaria and his protection, Proceeding of Jub.

University of Forestry, vol I, p. However, palynological and paleoethnological studies conducted on the base of pollen and macro remains on the archeological sites at Prague 13 confirm the distribution of chestnuts in these locations during the Early Modern Age 17th — 18th century. More historical information about this chestnut orchard is given in a historical text written by Jan Josef Urtici around and in lectures given by Dr. Zippe in 8. At that time, the plants were already fertile, so it can be certainly assumed that the first trees were planted in the 16th century, i.

The best-known present chestnut orchard is Fig. Distribuzione di alberi sopra 20 anni di C. This orchard was established Cryphonectria parasitica in the Czech Republic. In e in una relazione del Dr. Zippe del 8. Sweet pertanto si stima che siano stati piantati nel XVI seChestnut had spread from the fruits of the Auersperg colo, o anni or sono Attualmente il più chestnut orchard into the surrounding area as well noto castagneto, si trova a Nasavrky nella Boemia as into the cities and villages.

The former Auersperg orientale, e faceva parte della tenuta del principe chestnut orchard was declared a Natural Monument Adam Auersperg, il quale, tra il e il , sein I frutti di queste piantagioni, sono stati poi utilizzati per diffondere il castagno dolce nelle aree circostanti e nei villaggi. Effettivamente negli anni recenti, sono stati piantati alcuni alberi isolati 4.

Specie e aree di diffusione Sulla base delle informazioni storiche, divulgative e scientifiche, il castagno europeo Castanea sativa Mill. Le indagini condotte dal al , hanno potuto confermare la sua presenza in località 4,6,7. In dettaglio, sono stati monitorati alberi tra cui esemplari solitari e altri presenti in piccole macchie boschive.

Gli alberi solitari, si trovano nei parchi, nelle scuole materne, nelle città e nei giardini. Alcuni individui di C. La maggiore altitudine, creasing attention has been paid to Sweet Chestnuts in an effort to find an equivalent fruit-bearing woody species as a substitute to Horse Chestnut, which is chronically damaged by the Horse Chestnut Leafminer Cameraria ohridella. Lately, also many solitary chestnut trees have been planted, as well as along alleys 4. New chestnut stands and orchards have also been established through the Forest Training Enterprise of Mendel University near Brno, as there is a lot of interest in this woody plant not only for nut production, but also for forestry and to test the potential of this woody plant under the conditions of beech-oak stands.

Species and distribution European Sweet Chestnut, Castanea sativa, has been reported on localities throughout the Czech Republic, according to the information in papers and historical sources.

During a survey performed between and , its distribution was confirmed on sites 4,6,7. More than individual trees were examined, and together with the trees present in the forest stands, about trees were assessed. Chestnut trees were found as individuals or in small groups mainly in parks, forest nurseries, towns, and gardens.

The total area of chestnut stands in the Czech Republic covers about 30 ha, and the area of the two most important chestnut orchards is about 3 ha. The chestnut orchard near Chomutov in Northern Bohemia reaches approximately 2 ha, the circumference at chest height of the most robust tree is cm.

The diameter at chest height of the most robust tree in the chestnut orchard in Nasavrky near Chrudim is cm. At higher altitudes, the species suffers from climatic extremes, particularly late frosts. Nevertheless, these local chestnuts are fertile, in contrast to those growing in some stands at lower elevations and in places where only one tree is planted. The highest position in which chestnuts are growing is located near Nejdek in Karlovy Vary region, where chestnut trees thrive at an altitude m.

The most robust trunks with a circumference of 33 dove si possono trovare dei castagni, è Nejdek in prossimità della regione di Karlovy Vari, a m. Oggi, la legge protegge i vecchi esemplari di castagno, che sono stati dichiarati Monumenti Naturali. Soltanto in poche località, sono stati osservati alberi deperiti, incluso quella di Nasavrky, dove esiste la più grande piantagione di castagno. La malattia da quarantena, Cryphonectria parasitica, che provoca il cancro della corteccia è stata osservata per la prima volta nel 10, Fino al , la contaminazione da cancro corticale è stata confermata in sei località, di cui quattro vicino a Brno incluso alcuni casi osservati in due vivai.

Con la quercia, il castagno condivide le micorrize e la vasta gamma fungina che attacca il legno. Sul tronco degli alberi crescono anche, Phellinus robustus. Invece, marciumi radicali vengono causati da Ustulina deusta, Armillaria gallica, A. Frequente è anche la comparsa di Nectria spp. At present, many old individual chestnut trees are protected by law as Natural Monuments.

From a genetic point of view, the Czech population of Sweet Chestnut is an explicit example of genetic drift. Based on the analysis of randomly chosen genotypes, genetic linkage within populations was 0,05—0. According to written sources, the majority of seedlings was introduced from Northern Italy. Economical and technical data Compared to other tree species, the health condition of Sweet Chestnut could be defined as good; however, a decline of chestnut trees was observed on some localities.

A significant decline was also reported for the large chestnut stand in Nasavrky. The main cause is probably of abiotic nature, associated with the secondary activation of some fungal pathogens. Furthermore, chestnut trees seem to be very sensitive to soil salinity, thus they are not suitable as alley trees along busy roads; serious decline was observed on chestnut standing along the roads in several places.

The quarantine disease Chestnut Blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica was first identified in the Czech Republic in 10, Up to , Chestnut Blight was confirmed for six localities in the Czech Republic, resp. Two of these occurrences were located in nurseries or in windbreaks. Concerning wood-destroying fungi, the following species occur abundantly on dead twigs: Root rots caused by Ustulina deusta, Armillaria gallica, A. The appearance of Nectria spp. The spectrum of wood-destroying and also mycorrhizal fungi on Sweet Chestnut is similar to that on Oak.

One of the serious phytosanitary hazards is the ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. This infection causes a gradual drying of the tissues which leads to the total decline of the affected trees.

The main favouring factor of this disease seems to be in climatic extremes. Le castagne arrostite vendute principalmente nei mercatini di Natale, secondo una tradizione che nella Repubblica ceca persiste fin dal XIX secolo.

Recentemente nei mercati sono comparsi anche dei prodotti derivati dalla lavorazione delle castagne, soprattutto frutti essiccati, prodotti per uso farmaceutico, cosmetico ed altro. Un certo interesse per il castagno esiste come albero ornamentale, mentre nella forestazione, si preferisce piantarlo in associazione ad altre specie.

Sebbene non nativo della Repubblica ceca, il castagno europeo, si presta bene ad essere piantato in aree soggette ad estremi climatici insieme a querce e a faggi. Uses and traditions Even though in the past the first chestnut stands were founded with the intention to produce fruits, at present their production is of minor economic importance. Roasted chestnuts have been a traditional element on Christmas markets in the Czech Republic since the 19th century.

Most fruits are imported, mainly from Italy. Products made with chestnut fruit extracts have recently appeared on the Czech market, especially pharmaceuticals, dried goods, cosmetics etc.

The plantation of chestnut trees is limited to solitary trees as ornamental elements. As a stand-forming species, chestnut trees are rather used in mixed forestations. There are only few stands with significant distribution of chestnut in the Czech Republic. Even though the European Sweet Chestnut is not native to the Czech Republic, it is one of the woody species which can be planted in oak, oak— beech and beech forests, due to its tolerance to climatic extremes occurring in some areas.

Distribution and health condition of chestnut Castanea spp. Vegetative compatibility groups of Cryphonectria parasitica Murrill M. Barr in the Czech Republic. Advances in horticultural science, 20 1. Distribution of sweet chestnut C. New finds of Cryphonectria parasitica and the first record of chestnut blight on red oak Quercus rubra L. Journal of Forest Science, 51 6. New findings and vegetative compatibility group of Cryphonectria parasitica Murrill M.

The first record of Cryphonectria parasitica in the Czech Republic. Delle oltre specie arboree scoperte, circa , sono coltivate su larga scala e tra queste vi è il castagno cinese Castanea mollissima Bl.

In Cina, il castagno, si coltiva da almeno anni prima di Cristo ed ha avuto una grande importanza economica, fino alla epoca della Dinastia Han durata tra il a. Specie e aree di diffusione Il castagno, appartiene alla famiglia delle Fagaceae, sottofamiglia Castanea e comprende circa 10 specie sparse in varie parti del mondo.

Tre sono native della Cina Figg. More than tree species have been identified, and about species are being cultivated commercially. Chinese chestnut is among the major cultivated species and it is considered the best quality edible chestnut in the world for its excellent taste and fragrance.

It has furthermore developed a very high resistance to blight, probably more than any other species of chestnut. The history of chestnut cultivation in China dates back to 1, A.

D, and already during the Han Dynasty B. Nowadays, the chestnut industry is a major economic factor in many villages and towns located in producing areas, and it has a vast prospect in the rational land management through the promotion of economical development in hilly and mountainous areas in the country. Species and distribution The chestnut belongs to the Fagaceae family, subfamily Castanea, and about 10 species are known in the world. There are 3 native species of chestnut Figs.

Castagno cinese - C. The two introduced species, guinii Dode. Sono anche coltivate, due specie non Japanese chestnut C. Zucc e il castagno europeo C. Geographical distribution of chestnuts in China nan.

Le principali aree di Hunan, Sichuan, produzione del castagno cinese, sono nelle valli del Chongqing, Guizhou,Yunnan, Shanxi, Gansu and fiume giallo e del fiume Yangtze. Vertical distribution ranges from approximately 30 m asl located on alluvial plains Dati economici e tecnici in Southern Shandong province and Northern La Cina, è attualmente uno tra i più importanti Jiangsu province to 2.

Main producing perficie di ha e una produzione che nel areas of the Chinese chestnut are concentrated at the è stata di tonnellate Tab. Nel sono Yellow River valley and the Yangtze River valley. Nei differenti diChina is Tab. Produzione di castagno stretti sono coltivate currently one of the Tab.

Esportazione di castagne - Tab. La castagna sgusciata è leggermente gialla, menwhich is also the largest amount in the world. Possiede anche un elevato valore economico perchè alimenta un mercato finalizzato allo sfruttamento delle sue proprietà medicinali. La raccolta, si fa in settembre ed in ottobre.

Essendo la castagna uno dei frutti più appetibili e di elevato valore nutritivo, è Fig. Preparazione delle caldarroste dai tempi antichi, Fig. Chestnut roasting che le caldarroste si preparano, si vendono e si mangiano in autunno Fig. Con le castagne, si preparano numerosi prodotti semilavorati con frutto fresco congelato ed es- Fig.

Many local cultivars are present in different districts. Average nut weight is 8. The fresh seed is light yellow and after frying the flesh is shiny and golden. Chestnut production has been effectively increased and its excellent quality has been maintained by applying modern management methods and technologies for comprehensive pest and disease controls, orchard management for high-density plantations, soil improvement, dry farming cultivation as well as fertilization according to the year plan Fig.

Uses and traditions The Chinese chestnut is used both for nut production or to provide shade. It is also planted in rows as a windbreak. It is highly appreciated for its economic and medicinal properties. In China, chestnuts are harvested in September and October. Being one of the major edible crops, the selling of roasted siccato , confezionate in vari modi Fig. I fiori degli amenti di castagno, hanno un odore specifico che è repellente per gli insetti, proprietà questa alla base di una vecchia usanza di intrecciare gli chestnuts in the autumn has a long tradition Fig.

Chestnuts are also processed to semi-finished products and finished products, such as dried nuts, freezed fresh nuts or nut cans Fig. Vari tipi castagne lavorate Fig. Different kinds of processed chestnuts Fig. Trama di amenti intrecciati a forma di tigre Fig. Tiger knitted of chestnut catkins amenti creando forme animali , e di sistemarli in casa per scacciare zanzare, moscerini e altri insetti Fig. Durante le cerimonie nuziali, è costume regalare frutti di giuggiole e castagne, poggiati sulla trapunta del letto della nuova coppia di sposi come simbolo di augurio di fertilità Fig.

Quando un mercante, fa passare per buone, merci di cattiva qualità, di lui si dice: During wedding ceremonies, people often put some Chinese dates and chestnuts in the quilt of the newly married couple Fig.

Chinese is a very nice, melodic and rich language. His similar to chestnut tree with tree burs originally. Giuggiole e castagne, per gli auguri agli sposi Fig. Good wishes in a wedding ceremony with date and chestnut Fig. Evolution of Chinese symbols describing chestnut tree 39 Croatia Medak1 J. Gli antichi Romani a significant influence during history. Nei tempi antichi le foremassifs, by which the natural distribuste di castagno erano una ricca tion of sweet chestnut forests was sigfonte di materia prima per le poponificantly extended in Croatia.

In ancient times, sweet Fig. Albero gigante di castagno Dai boschi cedui, dopo un periodo chestnut forests were a rich source of presso la foresta di Medvednica di breve rotazione anni , si otraw material. Sweet chestnut wood is Fig. A giant chestnut tree in the Medvednica forest teneva materiale idoneo, per fare: Famosi erano gli ombrelli lavorati nel XIX high tannin content.

Legno were obtained and used to produce binders, baskets, e carbonella erano il combustibile più usato dai fabsmall pickets, sticks and stocks for farming tools, as bri durante la forgiatura dei metalli.

Le scorie delle castagne, invece, erano usate wine and beer barrels, pillars, laths, mine wood, come lettiera animale e la frutta anche per nutrire il thinner construction wood, narrow boards, tannin bestiame. Nelle foreste di castagno, si disponevano extraction, etc. Sweet chestnut litter was used for flooring and the fruit In Croazia, il castagno è diffuso in due aree prin- cipali ma dai climi differenti, il che in totale rappresenta oltre i Ha.

I castagneti più grandi e più belli sono nelle foreste di Zrinska Fig. As today, sweet chestnut was also highly esteemed as a honey-yielding and curative species. Species and distribution In Croatia, sweet chestnut is spread in two main distinct areas of different climatic zones, covering a total area of more than The larger area spreads along central Croatia, from the Slovenian to the Bosnian-Herzegovinian border.

Sweet chestnut can be found on all massifs of this region, whereas the biggest and most beautiful forests grow on the Zrinska Fig. Here we can find the sweet chestnut growing together with oak, beech or horn- Foresta nativa di castagno a Zrinska gora Fig. Il castagno europeo, è una specie, che predilige le zone calde, pertanto nel clima continentale croato, cresce bene in zone collinari luminose, rifuggendo da quelle asciutte, fredde e soggette a nebbie.

Sugli altipiani, invece, il castagno cresce nelle montagne non molto ripide, allo stato boschivo o in forma di alberi isolati. Pure sweet chestnut coppices cover about Since this area is dominated by a rather continental climate, the sweet chestnut most readily grows in warm, well-lit positions on hilly territories, avoiding dry, cold and foggy sites.

On plateaus, mountain ridges and generally slightly hilly terrains it often forms pure stands, whereas on larger steeps and more open terrains it grows individually or in small groups.

Trees thrive best on deep, acidic and decalcified soils, basically on a siliceous substrate. The second sweet chestnut area in Croatia belongs to the sub-Mediterranean region, including Istria and the islands of Cres and Krk. Apart from forest stands, it is this part of Croatia where the commercial plantations of sweet chestnut are located.

In this region of warmer climate with higher precipitation rates, the trees grow on fresh soils, as well as on deep, leached soils with a carbonate substrate. They grow well in windprotected positions, whereas in places exposed to wind, Castanea sativa chooses the most protected positions.

Le castagne, appena Fig. Albero innestato, a Liganj vicino Opatija. Grafted tree in Liganj near Opatija and its graft-union Fig. Le foreste di castagno private, sono soprattutto sfruttate per la produzione dei frutti.

Nella Croazia continentale, invece, il castagno, si rinviene prevalentemente allo stato di foresta mista o pura. Il legno delle foreste statali, non è di gran qualità sovente è affetto da cretto anulare ed è per lo più esportato nei paesi vicini per la produzione di tannino.

Il legno, inoltre, trova uso in agricoltura, per fare pali di sostegno per la vite, per costruire barili per il vino, in carpenteria, etc. Sweet chestnuts marrons were exported already in the 17th century, and they were, along with olives, wine and cherries, agricultural products based on which the inhabitants of this region were able to sustain themselves for centuries.

The export of marrons reached its peak in the 19th century when they were most sought-after in Italy, Austria and Germany. Afterwards, a period of stagnation set in, which led to the almost complete abandonment of grafted orchards Figs.

Sweet chestnut fruits were collected for the food industry, to be processed into purée, flour or to be preserved. During the s, annual amounts of 2. In continental Croatia, sweet chestnut is mostly found in mixed or pure sweet chestnut forests.

Privately owned sweet chestnut forests are mostly used for fruit production. Wood from state owned forests is mainly of poor quality ring-shake and is mostly exported to neighboring Slovenia for tannin production. In carpentry it is used for floors and parquets, wooden constructions, bridges, ferries, shingles for roof frames, roof building material, mine and tunnel wood.

It is also used for sleepers, for pillars in shipbuilding, in the wood and timber industry for wall-panels, plywood, particle boards and veneer. These are festivals organized in October, at the ripening time of the nuts; traditionally, a very rich gastronomic offer of various sweet pavimenti e parquet, per i ponti, per i tetti, nelle miniere per sostenere i tunnel.

Trattasi di sagre organizzate in ottobre, al tempo della maturazione delle castagne, quando con il frutto si preparano tante prelibatezze gastronomiche: Durante la sagre non mancano mai visite organizzate nelle foreste. In passato i marroni si usavano come surrogato del caffè, macinando castagne arrosto. Molto particolare è il brandy aromatizzato con miele di castagne.

A parte la tradizionale torta di castagne, con i marroni si preparano tante altre cose: I prodotti della pasticceria, tradizionalmente, sono addolciti col miele di castagne usato al posto dello zucchero. Il castagno in Croazia svolge anche un ruolo paesaggistico e di equilibrio per la biodiversità, ecco perché si usa piantarlo consociato ad altre specie forestali.

Apart from the accompanying cultural programmes, visits to sweet chestnut forests for fruit collection are organized.

Sweet chestnuts blossom in June and are therefore a very important source for late alimentation of bees, thus allowing to obtain the specific honey, nectar and pollen. From the Zrinska gora region where half of the total Croation sweet chestnut area is located , annual production of sweet chestnut honey amounts to about tons Fig. In the past, marrons were roasted and then ground and used as a substitute for coffee.

Sweet chestnut honey is the base for honeybrandy. Pastry and sweets are traditionally sweetened with sweet chestnut honey instead of sugar.

Bread is made of sweet chestnut flour. Recently, the fruits have also been utilized, in combination with milk, for animal feeding; the high nutritional value of the nuts guarantees the production of the best meat baby beef. Today, sweet chestnuts are also extremely important in Croatia for landscape purposes and the maintenance of biological diversity, mainly in mixed forests with other species.

Regardless of its decreased economic role, sweet chestnut is not losing popularity, especially thanks to its tasty fruits, and every autumn its forests are certainly the most visited ones. Arnie ubicate in una foresta di castagno Fig.

Bee-hives in chestnut forest References 1. Pitomi kesten na Cresu. Prikaz sastojina pitomog kestena Castanea sativa Mill.

Novak Agbaba, S, B. Chestnut research in Croatia. Pitanje autoktonosti i dalji uzgoj pitomog kestena Castanea sativa Mill. Un significativo declino della produzione è avvenuto a partire dal a causa della comparsa della Phytophthora spp. Oggigiorno vi sono coltivate sia varietà tradizionali che ibridi interspecifici. Le varietà tradizionali, -tutte appartenenti alla specie Castanea sativa -sono: Gli ibridi coltivati sono incroci interspecifici tra C. Essi sono meno suscettibili agli attacchi di Phytophthora spp e Cryphonectria parasitica, maturano precocemente, hanno frutti di buona dimensione e sono ben apprezzate sul mercato.

Non a caso si osserva una costante riduzione della coltivazione delle varietà tradizionali in tutte le regioni e, quindi, un parallelo incremento di quelle ibride. Attualmente si tende a promuovere le varietà precoci, con frutto grosso e meno suscettibili alle malattie. Production significantly declined through the XXth century, which was mainly due to the appearance of new diseases Phytophthora spp. Chestnut trees were also used for tannin production which led to extensive deforestation.

Nowadays, French production is concentrated in few departments; however, many secondary producing areas are still dispatched over the rest of the territory. There are two types of chestnuts grown today, traditional varieties and hybrid varieties. Generally, we notice a steady reduction of traditional varieties in all regions, with new hybrid varieties replacing them. The traditional varieties, belonging to the species Castanea sativa, are well adapted to the areas of production but often poorly suit the needs of modern markets.

Many of these are old varieties, and they are generally of good gustative quality, but fruits are often split and trees are sensitive to cankers and ink disease. The hybrid varieties deriving from interspecific crosses of C.

In Francia sono tanti i vecchi castagneti abbandonati, dappertutto, ad eccezione del sud-est del paese dove i coltivatori continuano a mantenere e rinnovare le vecchie piantagioni, producendo castagne da varietà tradizionali. Attraverso iniziative locali, sono state create denominazioni di qualità ed etichette di riconoscimento come: Il rinnovamento degli impianti Figg.

In tutti i casi la pianta ricomincia a fruttificare dopo il terzo anno. Comunque in queste regioni le piantagioni non sono numerose ed i frutti sono destinati al consumo fresco, mentre quelli più piccoli sono destinati alla trasformazione di tipo artigianale.

Se questo tipo di castanicoltura sopravvive lo si deve alla capacità della gente di creare valore aggiunto al prodotto raccolto, come in alcuni posti dove, per eesmpio, sono nati negozi per la vendita diretta ai consumatori locali ed ai turisti.

In Corsica vi sono allevamenti suini alimentati con le castagne, per produrre carne di qualità superiore. Il controllo fitosanitario dei castagneti lascia molto a desiderare a causa delle difficoltà di effettuare trattamenti chimici. Early ripening varieties with a good fruit size are well commercialized on the fresh markets and consequently, harvested quantities are increasing. Economical and technical data From the In Southwestern areas, the old abandoned chestnut groves are very numerous.

In the Southeastern of France, instead, growers prefer to maintain their old chestnut orchards and continue to produce fruits of traditional varieties. The renovation of these plots Figs. Bearing initiates after three years. Sometimes, renovation is also done by grafting the native shoots on old and cut-down trees. Damages caused by cankers Cryphonectria parasitica often need careful attention with this method of renovation.

There are few new plantations in this region. The most part of the production of this region is destined to the fresh market. Small and low-grade fruits are used in the processing industry.

Some growers have organized workshops to learn to process the fruits on their own and now sell their products directly to local consumers and the many tourists visiting these regions. This added value of the product and these marketing strategies allow to obtain interesting prices and to continue the production of chestnuts in areas which are not very suitable for intensive agriculture.

In Corsica, an important amount of the nuts are used to feed pigs which are intended to produce high quality meat. Corsica is also specialized in the traditional production of chestnut flour. Technically, the main problems are linked to the susceptibility of C. Nel Sudovest della Francia, il castagneto tradizionale è stato abbandonato.

I coltivatori hanno preferito impiantare nuovi frutteti con le varietà ibride Marigoule e Bouche de Bétizac. Piante autoradicate della varietà Marigoule sono state messe a dimora tra il e il Si sta valutando la possibilità di utilizzare delle specifiche varietà impollinatrici di C. Impianto di Bouche de Betizac nel sud-ovest della Francia Fig. I principali problemi di questi ibridi sono la sensibilità del tronco al gelo, la non completa affinità di innesto e una certa incompatibilità del polline.

The sanitary status of the fruits carpocapse worm, balanin worm, rots is also often mediocre, but the application of chemical plant protection technologies is very difficult in these areas. The design of new plantations provides for a more rational orchard management irrigation, fertilization as well as easier disease control. This variety produces fruits of big size, attractive appearance and good post harvest shelf live, but only of medium gustative quality.

Fruits ripen medium-early, but trees are not very productive and furthermore particularly demanding in pollination.

Specific pollinators deriving from C. The fruits are of big size fruits per kilogram , but not very bright. Trees are quite resistant to canker, but rather susceptible to fruit rots.

A breeding programme for new varieties initiated by INRA National institute for agriculture research during the s should in the near future result in the registration of some new varieties.

Main breeding targets adressed with these hybrid varieties are their adaptation to local climate and soil conditions frost on trunks , as well as overcoming problems of grafting and pollen incompatibility.

Usi e tradizioni Attualmente la maggior parte della produzione francese viene venduta fresca nel periodo autunnale, tra ottobre e novembre. Circa tonnellate di castagne vengono lavorate come frutto intero conservato nel proprio succo; con i frutti più piccoli -circa tonnellatesi fanno marmellate. La pasticceria lavora tonnellate di marrons glaces Fig. Uses and traditions Early production, good fruit size and sanitary quality are most important aspects in commercializing chestnuts.

Nowadays the main part of French production is sold on the fresh market in autumn, more specifically in October and November. The processing industry uses about Imported products mainly arrive in the form of picked and frozen chestnuts. The canning industry producing whole chestnuts in their own juice uses about Jam industries absorb 7. Chestnut wood was also used for the production of tannin which led to extensive deforestation.

I Marrons glacès, serviti sulle tavole dei nobili francesi, fin dal Fig. It grew in forests of the Caucasus already ziaria del Pliocene, prima della grande Glaciazione million years ago, at the Pliocene of the Ter 7. Alcuni scienziati ritengono che il castagno Catiary period, before the great glaciations 7. Some scistanea sativa Mill. Questa ipotesi introduced into Europe from the Caucasus region or si basa sul fatto che, la variabilità genetica dei genoTurkey around 2.

Attraverso le fonti storiche si comprende che, Turkey and gradually decreases towards the West Il that most forests in Georgia, provided that climatic georgiano Vakhushti Batonishvili grande fito-geoand soil conditions allowed so, were composed of grafo del XVIII secolo, riporta che il castagno crechestnut trees. Guldenshtedt, viaggiando lungo la several times that the sweet chestnut is native to Georgia, ebbe modo di osservare e di segnalare in Georgia, and that it grows spontaneously all over the un articolo scientifico che la qualità delle castagne country.

He also reported that nuts of chestnut trees migliorava procedendo da oriente zona di Kakheti growing in the Eastern part of Georgia Kakheti are verso occidente area di Sanavardo del paese.

Guldenshtedt, during delle associazioni boschive di castagno insieme a his travels in Georgia, described chestnuts growing quelle di susino, cotogno, fichi e gelsi, ossia si osserin small groves near Sanavardo West Georgia, vava la presenza di una vasta gamma di frutti eduli Imereti , together with plums, quinces, figs and mulche crescevano insieme, come mai Guldenshtedt berries, and he noted that he had never seen similar aveva visto prima!

Chestnuts are utilized in two ways: This second utidi castagno, tali da minare lization has frequently alla fonte il patrimonio focaused severe and unrestale georgiano.

Foreste di castagno in Georgia aree in rosso schio di estinzione, e Caucasian chestnuts Fig. Chestnut forests in Georgia red spots pertanto è stato incluso nel were highly de- 48 Libro rosso delle specie da proteggere. Cholokashvili, alla castagna, ha dedicato questa strofa: In Georgia vi sono molti luoghi i cui nomi sono legati al castagno: Specie e aree di diffusione In Georgia cresce il castagno dolce C.

Il castagno non si trova in foreste pure, ma in associazioni boschive, insieme alla quercia georgiana, al faggio, al ciliegio e ad altre piante. In his poem about fruits, Georgian writer G. Species and distribution The sweet chestnut C. It belongs to the genus Castanea Mill. This genus belongs to the family Fagacea, as Oak and Beech.

Usually, Castanea trees grow in mixed deciduous forests, together with Georgian oak, beeches, wild cherries and other trees. Foresta di castagno in Racha-Lechkhumi-Georgia occ. Castagne delle foreste di Kakheti - Georgia orientale Fig. Chestnuts in the Kakheti forest Eastern Georgia comprese tra e m e, qualche volta, persino anche a m.

Non cresce, invece, nelle zone orientali della Georgia e nei terreni calcarei. La pianta è in grado di reagire rapidamente ai tagli anche in condizioni di scarsa penetrazione della luce e quindi si adatta bene come specie da bosco ceduo. The chestnut is spread over both the Western and the eastern parts of the country Fig. They are mainly grown at altitudes between - m asl, in some places even at 1. Large chestnut forests are located in the Samegrelo region at elevations of m , such as Martvili, Zugdidi, Abchasia, Imereti-Kharagauli, Zestaphoni, Tskaltubo, Bagdadi, Tkibuli, Chiatura, and in the region of Guria at altitudes of Toler- 49 50 Notizie economiche e tecniche ating shading quite well, chestnut trees have a good I dati del del Ministero della protezione regeneration ability and after cutting they sprout easambientale riportano in Ha, la superficie foily; therefore, they are widely used for coppicing.

Una stima approsEconomical and technical data simata, ma non ufficiale, indica in mila tonnellate le castagne prodotte in Georgia. Estifino a 1, m. Nella foresta si incontrano alberi che svilupdata do not exist. Nella Georgia Occidentale Samegrelo, eters vary between 0. Svaneti, Abchazia si incontrano alberi con un Trees can live for more than years, in some tronco dal diametro di 1,,8 m.

Un buon accresciplaces even years. They do not tolerate drought and heat. There coltivazione della pianta se a bosco ceduo o se creis information that cold hardiness of local chestnut sce isolata Un albero da bosco ceduo produce types is higher than in European locations, and trees frutta volte meno di un albero solitario. The ripe pollen of paese i castagneti non sono mai stati coltivati su base male flowers has a specific sweet smell which atcommerciale, perché nelle foreste è possibile trovare tracts insects for pollinisation.

Chestnut trees enter grandi quantità di frutti allo stato spontaneo; tuttavia, into bearing at the age of years and are fully proin alcune regioni, principalmente nel distretto di Koductive at the age of years.

Yield amounts debuleti distretto di Ajara vicino alle case, venivano pend closely on the prevailing weather conditions of coltivati castagni per il frutto. It is conpollinazione delle api. In presenza di pronubi un etsidered that harvest from Chestnut trees growing in taro fornisce kg di frutti, valore che si forests is times less than yields obtained from abbassa a kg in luoghi single trees. The nuts start falling non molto visitati dalle api.

A at the end of September, mainly fine settembre i ricci iniziano without the chests. Average a cadere liberando le castaweight of one fruit is approxigne, che vengono raccolte da mately g. Nella away from honeybees. In Georstagione autunnale si registra Fig. Selezione manuale di castagne per il mercato gia, chestnuts have never been Fig. Grading of chestnuts by hand for market anche una certa attività comcultivated on a commercial basis; merciale, da parte di acquirenti che le trasportano e le vendono in altre cittadine Dal punto di vista qualitativo, le castagne sono selezionate Fig.

Nella foresta di Kakheti è stata osservata la seguente frequenza delle classi di castagne raccolte: Chestnuts are generally harvested by collecting them in big bags from the ground; then, they are brought to drying places, where the local people keep them for drying on cm thick layers.

The nuts are mainly sold on the markets of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. In autumn also many traders arrive from other cities to buy the fruits and transport them on their own to other, distant markets Fruits are graded in 3 categories accoerding to their size Fig. According to this sizing, Chestnuts from Kakheti usually show the following percentages: Georgian chestnuts are quite good in taste and have positive technological characteristics; therefore, some local companies process the nuts according to the Fig.

Chemical composition of chestnuts from Kvareli 2 frozen Fig. The wood is a good mica delle castagne di Kakheti. Le castagne georsource of tannin and had been used for leather tangiane sono molto gustose ed hanno sufficienti ning before the introduction of synthetic tannins. Le castagne sono il frutto più gia, sometimes also roasted; the latter version is preamato dai georgiani, tanto che nella dialettica popoferred by children.

The nuts are highly esteemed in lare, quando qualcuno chiede qualcosa di molto piaGeorgia, and there are even some Georgian proverbs cevole, ma difficile di ottenere, gli si risponde: Il legname di castagno è molto richiesto, per fare porte di legno e finestre delle case, apprezzate per il colore piacevole ed attraente. Prima che si diffondessero i pali di cemento, i supporti del vigneto erano fatti con pali di castagno.

Alcuni produttori di vino usano con successo botti fatte con doghe di legno di castagno. Nella Georgia occidentale, si costruiscono speciali case fatte con legno di castagno che, anche dopo cento anni, non presentano danni da roditori, da marciumi o da insetti 7.

In passato, prima che si diffondesse il tannino sintetico, dalla corteccia di castagno si faceva inchiostro e dal legno di castagno si estraeva il tannino usato per colorare il cuoio. Per quanto riportato nei vecchi libri di erboristeria medicinale, le castagne arrosto erano raccomandate durante la convalescenza degli ammalati; gli estratti fogliari sarebbero stati utili nella cura di gastriti e, per il loro elevato contenuto di tannini, si usavano anche come coadiuvanti nella rimarginazione delle ferite.

In passato dalle foglie si faceva un prodotto medicinale che aveva effetti emostatici The trees are very beautiful during flowering, and in autumn leaves turn brightly yellow.

Therefore, chestnuts are used as landscape trees in some villages 2. Very popular is also the use of chestnut timber; due to its nice colour, good structure, and attractive appearance, wooden doors and windows for houses are made of it. This was also the reason why in Eastern Georgia chestnut wood was used to construct bridges, and in Megrelia they were so widely spread and famous that there is even a saying in Mengrelian dialects which refers to chestnut bridges and its resistance to rotting and insects.

Before the production of cement poles, supports made of chestnut wood had been used in vineyards. There is also information from local winemakers that wine barrels made of chestnut bark is widely appreciated. In the past, the bark of chestnut trees had also been used to produce ink. According to old medicinal books, roasted chestnuts are supportive elements in the convalescence of people under therapy. Furthermore, a leaf extract is said to cure gastritis.

Due to its high content of tannins, chestnut wood was used to heal wounds and injuries. Chestnut leaves are also the basis of a medicine for haemostatic remedies Castagne pelate pronte per essere congelate - Fig.

Peeled chestnuts ready for being frozen 52 References 1. Dendrology, Volume II, Tbilisi, p. Buchukuri V, Nizharadze I. Chestnut About cultivation and planting , Tbilisi, Bioecological peculiarities of Chestnut grove in Kakheti, PhD dissertation thesis, p. Ocherk pastitelnogo pokrova kavkaza s kartoi, Tbilisi, p. Basic Forest growing, Tbilisi, p. Evidence of genetic drift in chestnut populations. Report of study chestnut distribution in Georgia, internal report of AgVantage, Tbilisi p.

Statistic data of forest distribution in Georgia, Ministry of environment Chestnut, Moscow , p. Chestnut in Forest of south Caucasus, Tbilisi, p. In Germania la pianta è stata introdotta prima del Non vi sono dubbi che il castagno fu introdotto dai Romani, circa anni fa, a nord delle Alpi insieme alla vite Vitis vinifera 5, 12 , le cui tappe corrispondono ad alcuni insediamenti della colonizzazione Romana nelle città di Mainz Mogontiacum in Germania Superior, campo militare del a.

Colonia Augusta Treverorum in Belgica fondato nel 16 a. Tra le specie da frutto, il castagno, era esplicitamente raccomandato come importante albero da coltivare. In questo contesto sono numerose le parole dialettali riconducibili al castagno: Its general cultivation has always been closely linked to grapevine cultivation Vitis vinifera. Therefore, the chestnut is regarded the typical tree of Southern European landscapes which are characterized by wine producing regions and mild climates, bringing the charming atmosphere of Mediterranean nature and lifestyle also North of the Alps In the following, some significant historical highlights on chestnuts are reported.

There is no doubt that about 2. The most important and oldest foundation, however, is the city of Trier at the Mosel River: Colonia Augusta Treverorum in Belgica was founded in 16 B. The instructions given by him personally give detailed descriptions on agricultural practice, especially concerning three-field crop rotation management, raising cattle, apiculture and pisciculture as well as viticulture and fruit growing in different orchards. Le maggiori aree, dove si trova il castagno sono nelle regioni sud-occidentali della Germania: In this context quite a lot of designations for community areas partly originating far back to the Middle Ages reveal the significance of sweet chestnut in Southern Germany.

In this way, by clearing remote areas and cultivating fruit and herbs in monastery gardens, also the sweet chestnut was planted in areas suitable for their cultivation. Particularly throughout the late medieval times, the chestnut fruits which were also harvested along the Haardt Mountains in the Palatinate, were used as a valuable commodity foodstuff that was even shipped on Rhine River to the Netherlands and to England.

So the Cosmographia edited by Sebastian Münster - the very first science-based and at the same time commonly understandable description of the knowledge of the world in German language - is a very important source of information concerning agriculture, viniculture and fruit cultivation up to the late Middle Ages In this work, the chestnut was alread brought into prominence in an overall appearance of the townscape of Heidelberg around On top of the nearby tree-covered Königsstuhl hill, the chestnut is still today is characteristic of the forest, thus giving the university town of Heidelberg a serene Southern atmosphere — particularly during the flowering period in the beginning of June until July, due to the colour and the aromatic scent of the blossoms Fig.

Far-reaching consequences for chestnut in groves and forests in Germany were brought about by the severe winters of , , , and Inoltre, alberi solitari si incontrano sui suoli calcarei del Kaiserstuhl di fronte alla Foresta Nera, che è una delle regioni più calde della Germania, ed è ricca di flora di tipo Mediterraneo, quindi adatta anche al castagno; tuttavia questi alberi soffrono di clorosi e di deficienza di potassio Fig.

In Germania la maggior parte dei boschi cedui di castagno sono stati convertiti in foreste. Data la sua elevata capacità rigenerativa, il castagno, tradizionalmente è stato allevato come ceduo per produrre matricine, utilizzate nel riscaldamento domestico, per estrarre tannino e per fare pali resistenti e durevoli.

Le foglie erano usate per fertilizzare i vigneti e come lettiera animale. Con un periodo di turnazione di 20 anni è possibile ottenere ottimi pali. In questo modo, sotto gli alberi di castagno cresce una progenie di semenzali che infittisce la popolazione forestale. Si incontrano macchie boschive di puro castagno, oppure miste a pino Pinus sylvestris o in Species and distribution In Germany, specimens of C.

However, the only widespread species is C. Currently, sweet chestnuts grow on an overall area of approximately 7. The major chestnut areas are located in the Southwestern parts of Germany, particularly in the Ortenau region in Baden-Württemberg on the Western slope of the Black Forest, in the Palatinate at the Eastern edge of the Palatinate Forest and the Haardt Mountains, and along the Badische Bergstrasse up to Heidelberg.

However, on the very calcareous loess soils of the Kaiserstuhl area, which is one of the warmest regions in Germany with Mediterranean floristic and faunistic elements and thus highly suitable for chestnuts, one can only find solitary trees since the species suffers from the chlorotic conditions and potassium deficiency prevailing in this area Fig.

Today most of the traditional chestnut coppice stands in Germany have been converted to 55 competizione con alberi di quercia rossa Quercus rubra. Nella Foresta Nera, il castagno dolce si trova anche associato ad abete europeo Abies alba e abete Douglas Pseudotsuga menziesii.

Nel Palatinate settentrionale, nella piccola città di Dannenfels, nel massiccio dei monti di Donnersberg, si possono ammirare alcuni esemplari residuali di vecchie piantagioni 2. La circonferenza è di 7 m, misurata ad altezza di petto, il che lo rende uno degli alberi di castagno più belli di tutta la Germania. Tanto interesse per questa pianta non poteva non riflettersi anche sul linguaggio e sulla letteratura locale, ricchi di riferimenti al castagno 1,5.

Nei pressi di Taunus in Kronberg, Fig. Up to the age of 90 years, trees are more vigorous than beech Fagus sylvatica and in particular than oak Quercus spp. At present, the rotation period is years and will be years in future which however might bring about the problem of ring shake. Due to its continuous reproductive energy, the chestnut was traditionally managed in coppice stands destined to produce stump sprouts which generate wood used for heating and tanning, as well as for the manufacturing of durable weather resistant stakes.

Leaf litter was applied as a fertilizer in vineyards or used as bedding in cattle shelters. In short rotation periods of about 20 years, it is possible to produce valuable wood for stacks.

Due to its fast growth and in response to globally increasing costs for energy, the sweet chestnut is presently gaining rising attention concerning its exploitation for supplying energy wood in the form of chips and pellets. There are also some high forests of chestnuts with a closed crown cover which derive from seedlings. Coppice stands in Germany that are no longer managed will naturally develop into high forests.

Chestnuts may be grown in pure stands, trees also grow well in the light shade of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris and even more in competition with relatively fast growing tree species like red oak Quercus rubra. In the Black Forest, sweet chestnut is even found in mixed stands growing together with European silver fir Abies alba and Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii. Chestnut orchards in Germany established for fruit production are only of local or regional significance.

In the past however, this use was more common and resulted in the cultivation of high-quality fruit selections.

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