A healthy eating pattern, regardless of age, should consist of ingesting high quality protein preferably in adequate amounts across all meals throughout the day. Of particular relevance to overall health is the growth, development, and maintenance of skeletal muscle tissue. Skeletal muscle not only contributes to physical strength and performance, but also contributes to efficient macronutrient utilization and storage. It is necessary to balance the accurate assessment of protein quality e. Moreover, current recommendations need to shift from single nutrient guidelines to whole food based guidelines in order to practically acknowledge food matrix interactions and other required nutrients for potentially optimizing the health effects of food. The aim of this paper is to discuss protein quality and amount that should be consumed with consideration to the presence of non-protein constituents within a food matrix and potential interactions with physical activity to maximize muscle mass throughout life. The development of a healthy eating pattern, or the identification of the best food combinations and amounts to include in the diet, is relevant to support physical performance, weight management, and reduce disease risk. In terms of protein-containing foods, protein quality, and amount are two major considerations within the development of a healthy eating pattern irrespective of age. Food protein quality is traditionally dependent on its amino acid content and the availability of these amino acids in circulation, factors that would influence their metabolism within different body protein pools.
In the context of a brief review of the strengths and weaknesses of current methods for assessing protein quality, this paper will explore particular characteristics of the protein consumed that could impact optimal health and would need to be considered in an expanded protein quality concept. Although concern has always been expressed about the importance of dietary protein for the elderly, especially in the context of the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass sarcopenia, there has not been a firm consensus that the published evidence indicates any measurable age-related change in the minimum protein requirement 13 or the nitrogen-balance data which form the basis of the current PDCAAS reference pattern 4. Methods of Determining Protein Quality There are different methods for assessing the quality of protein sources which look at the amino acid profile and how readily the protein is digested and absorbed. For example, resistance exercise is inherently anabolic by improving net muscle protein balance defined as muscle protein synthesis minus breakdown for up to 2 days Curr Topics Nutraceutical Res ; 4 : — Thus, within the context of potential benefits associated with higher protein intakes, it is important to consider to what extent the quality of the protein eg, amino acid profile influences its anabolic signaling. There is, in fact, a dose-response relation between IAA concentrations in the blood and muscle protein synthesis 14, 15, 17,
Update on maximal anabolic response to dietary protein. Signaling pathways involved in translational control of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by leucine. Improved glycemic control is important in the context of management of type 2 diabetes and also in relation to body-weight regulation. New issue alert. This notion is consistent with periodized nutrition frameworks for carbohydrates commonly advocated to optimize training prescriptions and adaptations, especially for athletes Protecting the planet i. Anabolic signaling deficits underlie amino acid resistance of wasting, aging muscle.